Secondhand smoke (SHS) kills, and WHO and other health authorities have declared that there is no safe level of exposure to SHS. Non-smokers exposed to SHS are equally at risk of tobacco-related diseases and premature death as those who actively smoke. Globally, more than a third of all people are regularly exposed to SHS. SHS exposure commonly occurs in homes and workplaces, but exposure also occurs in many public places including in restaurants, bars, markets, airports, public transportation, and even health and education facilities. It is estimated that around 1.2 million premature deaths annually are due to exposure to SHS causing heart disease, stroke, cancer, acute asthma, and others. Even brief exposure can cause immediate and serious health harms.
All people, regardless of age, gender, or socio-economic status, deserve protection of their health, and involuntary exposure to SHS may be considered a violation of the basic human right to life and smoking around children as a form of child abuse.
As recommended in the WHO FCTC Article 8 Guidelines, only a 100% smoke-free environment can effectively protect persons from exposure to tobacco smoke and the health hazards of smoking. Public smoking bans also encourage smokers to quit and discourage youth smoking.
With growing public awareness and support for smoke-free environments, an increasing number of countries have taken steps to protect people from the dangers of tobacco smoke by enacting laws that ban smoking in all public places and create smoke-free environments. The ban covers all forms of tobacco products including waterpipes and e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products.
This chapter describes the progress achieved by ASEAN countries to enforce comprehensive smoke-free laws prohibiting smoking in various public settings. Related initiatives include smoke-free cities, smoke-free world heritage sites, and smoke-free universities with the aim of attaining a smoke-free ASEAN.
Almost 1.5 billion people in 55 countries protected by smoke-free legislation.
Comprehensive smoke-free legislation is currently in place for almost 1.5 billion people in 55 countries.
1 in 2 children is exposed to secondhand smoke.
Nicotine is highly addictive and exposure to nicotine in adolescents, in particular, can have long-lasting, damaging effects, noting that it could affect brain development. ENDS involves the inhalation of a nicotine-infused aerosol.
|Country||Compound fees (USD)|
|Brunei||224 - 374 (BND 300 - 500)||374 (BND 500)|
|Malaysia||50% from the total fine up to 1,206 (MYR 5,000)||50% from the total fine up to 362 or 603 (MYR 1,500 or MYR 2,500)|
|Singapore||1st Offense 149 (SGD 200)||1st Offense 149 (SGD 200)|
|Succeeding offenses 372 (SGD 500)||Succeeding offenses 372 (SGD 500)|
|Brunei||747 (BND 1,000)||747 - 1,494 (BND 1,000 - 2,000)|
|Cambodia||5 (KHR 20,000)||12.3 (KHR 50,000)|
|Indonesia||Maximum limit of fines: 3,438 (IDR 50 million)||106.7 - 533.3 (LAK 1,000,000 - 5,000,000)**|
|Lao PDR||21.3 - 42.7 (LAK 200,000 - 400,000)*||106.7 - 533.3 (LAK 1,000,000 - 5,000,000)**|
|Malaysia||2,413 (MYR 10,000) or imprisonment not exceeding 2 years||724 (MYR 3,000) or imprisonment not exceeding 6 months (not displaying no smoking signage)|
|1,206 (MYR 5,000) or imprisonment not exceeding 1 year (failing to ensure no people smoke in the premise)|
|Myanmar||0.71 - 3.57 (MMK 1,000 - 5,000)
Succeeding Offenses 2.69 - 8.98 (MMK 3,772 - 12,572)
|1st Offense 0.71 - 2.14 (MMK 1,000 - 3,000) Succeeding offenses 2.14 - 7.14 (MMK 3,000 - 10,000)|
|Philippines||10.3 - 206 (PHP 500 - 10,000)||10.3 - 206 (PHP 500 - 10,000)|
|Singapore||744 (up to SG 1,000)||1st Offense 744 (SG 1,000)
Succeeding offenses 1,488 (up to SG 2,000)
|Thailand||160 (THB 5,000)||1,600 (THB 50,000)|
|Vietnam||8.7 - 21.7 (VND 200,000 - 500,000)||130 - 2,600 (VND 3 - 60 million)|
|Country||Toll-free telephone complaint hotline||Provided by|
(any violations to smoke-free law)
|Health Enforcement Unit, Ministry of Health|
|Singapore||+66842036 or 66842037
(any tobacco related offences)
|Health Science Authority (HSA)|
(any complaints including issues related to tobacco and violence offences)
|Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health|
The Smoke-free Cities Asia Pacific Network (SCAN) formerly known as the Smoke-free Cities ASEAN Network, is a coalition of cities, municipalities, provinces, states and districts in the Asia Pacific countries that support each other to achieve the goal of making their countries smoke-free (FCTC Article 8).
SCAN was launched in Davao City, Philippines during the 1st Smoke-free Cities Regional Workshop in 2013. It was organized to bring together all cities, municipalities and provinces, and other different smoke-free settings, which includes heritage sites and cities in the ASEAN that are moving towards becoming smoke-free. SCAN provides a platform to share experiences and learn from the best practices on smoke-free of different cities, cities with different cultures but with a common goal. The establishment of SCAN has increased the awareness of the political leaders on the importance of creating and adopting strong smoke-free policies to make cities healthy and liveable.
In 2015, the mayors and governors signed the pledge of commitment during the 3rd Smoke-free Cities Regional Workshop in Iloilo City, Philippines. SCAN officially accepted members coming from the 10 ASEAN countries. At present, there are more than 300 SCAN members.
The Ministry of Tourism in collaboration with the Ministry of Health has launched a 'Smoke-Free Environment Compliance Awards' initiative in 2019. The award aims to give recognition and encourage good compliance of smoke-free environments in the tourism sector in tandem with the smoke-free regulation particularly among the eatery establishments (restaurants, cafeteria, and food court) and accommodations (hotels, guesthouses, and homestays). At present, 378 tourism establishments have received the smoke-free environment compliance awards (a trophy and a certificate of appreciation) by the Ministry of Tourism.
The initiative started with tourism-active provinces including Kampong Cham, Siem Reap and Battambang. About 37 hotels/guesthouses and 26 restaurants across the three provinces were eligible to receive the 'Smoke-free Environment Compliance Award' in the tourism sector for 2019-2020.
The initiative has extended to other provinces with a higher number of awardees of 138 hotels/ guesthouses and 97 restaurants attaining the excellent smoke-free compliance in the context of COVID-19 crisis and receiving the 2020 Smoke-Free Environment Compliance Award in the tourism sector. No smoking stickers were also provided to hotels/guesthouses and restaurants to support the smoke-free initiative. The awardees were from Kampong Speu, Pursat, Kep, Kampot, Prey Veng, Svay Rieng, Kampong Chhnang, Takeo, Tboung Khmum and Kratie provinces.
In 2021, about 46 hotels/guesthouses and 34 restaurants have received the award for good compliance with smoke-free environments in the tourism sector and prevention of COVID-19. The awardees came from Kampong Thom, Preah Vihear and Steung Treng provinces.
|Provinces||Number of awardees||Year|
|Kampong Cham, Siem Reap, Battambang||138||97||2020|
|Kampong Speu, Pursat, Kep, Kampot, Prey Veng, Svay Rieng, Kampong Chhnang, Takeo, Tboung Khmum, Kratie||37||26||2019|
|Kampong Thom, Preah Vihear, Steung Treng||46||34||2021|
Vietnam has initiated a non-smoking tourism city model in Hoi An, Hue, Nha Trang and Ha Long cities. No-smoking signages were displayed in non-smoking areas particularly at tourist attraction areas, hotels, and restaurants. Besides providing a non-smoking working environment, the restaurants and hotels also enforce penalties for those who smoke in workplaces and public places, as well as promote smoke-free policy to the locals and tourists.
Hanoi was promoted as a model for “food-safe and non-smoking restaurants and hotels” in 2017. About 200 hotels and restaurants had participated in the non-smoking campaign and committed to comply with smoke-free policy according to the Law on Prevention of the Harm of Tobacco.
In September 2019, there were 30 non-smoking cultural, tourist, and relic sites in Hoan Kiem District, Hanoi City. No smoking signages were put up to warn the locals or tourists to comply with the smoke-free policy.
Baguio City is a 100% smoke-free City in the Philippines. Ordinance No. 34 s. 2017 makes it unlawful for any person to smoke or allow smoking in public utility vehicles, government-owned vehicles or any other means of public transport for passengers, accommodation and entertainment establishments, public buildings, public places, enclosed public places or any enclosed area outside of one's private residence or private place of work, except in duly designated smoking areas Those allowing or abetting or tolerating the aforementioned violations will be fined PHP 1,000 for the first offense, PHP 2,000 for the second offense and PHP 3,000 for the third offense.
In 2020, Baguio City reported a total of PHP 2.815 million collection from establishments and individual violators of the smoke-free ordinance.
The Smoke-free Universities Network (SFUN) was launched in Mandalay, Myanmar in 2016. The People's Health Foundation (PHF) and SEATCA organized the Smoke-free Universities Workshop that initially included medical universities only but was expanded to include non-medical universities. These smoke-free universities formed a network known as the Smoke-free Universities Network and plans to include other smoke-free universities in the ASEAN.
Several universities joined the selection for the Best Smoke-free University in Myanmar. Dr Myint Htwe, the Minister of Health and Sports, presented the awards to the recipients during the 2018 World No Tobacco Day celebration in Nay Pyi Taw. In recognition of their successful smoke-free campaign, the top 3 universities were recognized which included the University of Medicine (Magway), the University of Dentistry (Yangon) and the University of Traditional Medicine (Mandalay).
All medical related universities have beensmoke-free since 2018. Major universities in all capital cities of regions and states have also been smoke-free since 2019. About 25% of the universities are implementing 100% smoke-free policy.
Ministry of Higher Education, Science, Research and Innovation has established a smoke-free universities network with a total of 164 members. The network aims to support the strengthening the implementation of smoke-free university.
|Vietnam||Smoke-free 5th Asian Beach Games held on 24 September-3 October 2016, Danang, Vietnam|
|Singapore||28th SEA Games held on 5-16 June 2015, Singapore|
|Myanmar||27th SEA Games held on 11-22 December, 2013, Myanmar|
|Cambodia||1st Smoke-Free Sports event held on 20 June 2012|
|Indonesia||Smoke-Free 26th Southeast Asian (SEA) Games, held in Jakarta, 11-22 November 2011|
|Lao PDR||Smoke-Free 25th Southeast Asian (SEA) Games, held in Vientiane City, 9-18 December 2009|
|Malaysia||Smoke-Free Paralympic Games held on 15-19 August 2009|
|Thailand||Smoke-Free 24th Southeast Asian (SEA) Games, held in Nathon Ratchasima (Korat), 6-15 December 2007|
|Philippines||Smoke-Free 23rd Southeast Asian (SEA) Games, held in Manila, 27 November to 5 December 2005|
|Smoke-free, Vape-Free 30th Southeast Asian (SEA) Games, held in Manila, 30 November to 11 December 2019|
|Vietnam||Smoke-Free 22nd Southeast Asian (SEA) Games, held in Hanoi, 5-13 December 2003|
The Blue Ribbon Campaign was initiated in 2013 as part of the initiative of the Malaysian Health Promotion Board (MySihat) to recognize and honour the significant roles played by individuals, organizations and institutions in advocating a 100% smoke-free environment in both indoor and outdoor areas in workplaces, restaurants or hotels. Currently, there are more than 300 premises were recognised as smoke-free through the Blue Ribbon Premises Certification. The role of media is honoured through a media award for raising awareness on the harmful effects of smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke. An outstanding achievement and special awards were given to individuals, groups, institutions, communities, government agencies and other stakeholders who have shown excellence in tobacco control leadership. MySihat has also been actively promoting and supporting the smoke-free cities initiatives in Malaysia, particularly in Melaka, Johor, Pulau Pinang, Kelantan and Terengganu. At present, around 33 smoke-free zones have been gazetted in these 5 states between 2011 and 2017.
The DOH Red Orchid Award is the first of its kind in the world. It aims to advocate and promulgate DOH Administrative Order 2009-0010 and Civil Service Commission Memorandum Circular No. 17, dated May 29, 2009 on the 100% smoke-free environment policy and push for full implementation of World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). The awards started in 2010 through giving recognition to 100% tobacco-free cities, municipalities, government offices and health facilities strictly enforcing tobacco control measures. The DOH Health Promotion and Communication Service manages the awards.