Knowledgeable and skilled human resources and effective multi-sectoral collaboration at different levels of government and society are necessary for effective development and implementation of a wide range of tobacco control activities. To this end, the WHO FCTC requires Parties to establish or reinforce and finance a national coordinating mechanism or focal point in order to develop, implement, periodically update, and review comprehensive multi-sectoral national tobacco control strategies, plans and programmes (Articles 5.1 and 5.2).
Generally many countries still lack the necessary structural, human, financial, and technical resources to implement cost-effective and sustainable tobacco control programmes. Few national governments in ASEAN have a sufficient number of staff working full-time on tobacco control. Both Singapore and Thailand have strong tobacco control policies in place with support from a significant number of national level tobacco control staff, while other countries in the region need to build national capacity (human, financial, and technical) to carry out effective and sustainable tobacco control programmes to combat the tobacco epidemic.
|Country||National mechanism for tobacco control||Governmental funding mechanisms for tobacco control|
|Brunei||National Committee for Tobacco Control
Multi-sectoral Taskforce for Health
|Cambodia||Committee for Tobacco Control (CFTC)||No|
|Indonesia||None, only Ministry of Health (MOH) Focal Point*||Yes**|
|Lao PDR||National Tobacco Control Committee||Yes|
|Malaysia||Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Secretariat||Yes|
|Myanmar||Central Board of the Control of Smoking and Consumption of Tobacco Products||No|
|Philippines||Department of Health (Health Promotion Bureau, Disease Prevention and Control Bureau,
Bureau of International Health Cooperation) and the Food and Drug Administration
|Singapore||Health Promotion Board||Yes|
|Thailand||National Tobacco Products Control Committee||Yes|
|Vietnam||Vietnam Tobacco Control Fund (VNTCF)||Yes|
In many countries tobacco control is often not a national priority. Consequently, domestic resources for WHO FCTC implementation are far from secure and must compete with other programmes for government funding. An effective way to address this is the introduction of dedicated surcharge taxes on tobacco and alcohol, which can aid in reducing consumption of these harmful products and, more importantly, provide a more secure funding stream for health promotion and tobacco control programmes.
Four out of ten ASEAN countries have established health promotion or tobacco control funds through surcharged taxes (Thailand, Lao PDR and Vietnam) and treasury budget (Singapore).
Health is still not given enough priority by government. In low-income countries, health expenditure fell as a share of government spending, from 7.9% in 2000 to 6.8% in 2016. They became increasingly reliant on official development assistance for health.
Governments collect more than USD 250 billion in total tobacco excise tax revenues each year worldwide, but spend only around USD 1 billion combined on tobacco control - with 95% of this spent by high-income countries.
Too few resources applied to tobacco control in low- and middle-income countries.
Fund currently available from public spending and foreign assistance: USD 0.019 per capita.
Fund needed to implement tobacco control “Best Buys” measures: USD 0.11 per capita.
The global tobacco control funding gap is currently estimated at USD 27.4 billion. The current average annual amount of domestic funding for tobacco control per country is USD 15 million, half of what's needed to scale-up the FCTC policies implementation.
In low income countries, health expenditure fell as a share of government spending, from 7.9% in 2000 to 6.8% in 2016.
In low income countries, average government spending per head increased from USD7 in 2000 to just USD9 in 2016.
In lower middle income countries, government health spending as a share of general expenditure grew in real terms from only 7.6% in 2000 to 8.3% in 2016. In low income countries, health expenditure fell as a share of government spending, from 7.9% in 2000 to 6.8% in 2016.
|Type and Year Established||Type||Governed and chaired by||Report to||Role of organization|
|Granting agency||Policy development||Implementing health promotion programs||Building capacity|
|Thai Health Promotion Foundation (ThaiHealth)
|Autonomous agency||Board of Governors and chaired by Prime Minister||Cabinet and to both houses of Parliament|
|Singapore Health Promotion Board
|Statutory Board under MOH||Board of Directors and chaired by independent Chairman||Minister of Health and Parliament|
|Vietnam Tobacco Control Fund
|Semi-autonomous agency and a unit in MOH||Inter-sectoral Management Board chaired by Minister of Health||Government and National Assembly|
|Lao PDR Tobacco Control Fund
|Unit in MOH||Tobacco Control Fund Council (National Tobacco Control Committee)||National Tobacco Control Committee and Government|
Between 2019 and 2020, 100 grantees were funded by VNTCF with a total funding of USD 27.568 million (VND 636,000 million) distributed among 23 ministries, mass organization agencies, 63 provinces/cities agencies, 4 tourism cities and 10 hospitals. The projects supported mainly on communication campaigns related to tobacco prevention and control, smoke-free development, and capacity building for law enforcement.